Monday, February 17, 2020

Contract Law Key Cases

Contract Law Key Cases:

There are numerous examples of invitation to treat.
Auctions — the lot displayed is the invitation to treat, the individual bids are offers, the fall of the  auctioneer's hammer is acceptance (British Car Auctions v Wright (1972)).
Self-service shopping — display of goods is the invitation to treat, a customer then selects goods and makes an offer to buy at the checkout, which is then accepted or not by the shopkeeper
(Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists
Ltd (1953)).
• The same applies to goods displayed in shop windows (Fisher v Bell (1961)) on whether display of a flick knife was unlawful under the Offensive Act.
Advertisements — the advertisement is the invitation to which a person responds by making an Offer to buy (Partridge v Crittenden (1968)).
Catalogues, as for auctions, so a lot can be withdrawn without any consequences (Harris v Nickerson (1873)).
Invitations to council tenants to buy their council houses and flats
(Gibson v Manchester City Council (1979)).
Tenders to provide goods or services — invitations to suppliers to offer a particular price for which they will provide the goods or services; the party inviting bids then selects a bid (Spencer v Harding
• Mere statement of price — merely stating an acceptable price does not make it an offer to sell; the other party must still offer to buy at the price (Harvey v Facey (1893)).
In all cases the significance of the invitation to treat is that the person responding to it has not accepted an offer, so their action does not at that point create a binding contract.
Sometimes precise wording is more important than context. While something seems more like an invitation to treat it may in fact have the effect of an offer, so that a positive response by the other party may well lead to a contract being formed. The wording limits the people capable of respondlng.

a) Unilateral offers (i.e. contained in advertisements, and otherwise seen as invitations to treat (e.g. rewards). An offeree is already defined in the reward (the person who complies with its terms) so
that the person need not make any offer to comply; they merely carryout the stated task (Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball co (1893)).
b) A statement Of price made during negotiations indicating that an offer exists (Bigg v Boyd Gibbins (1971)).
c) Competitive tendering, i.e. stating that the contract will be given to the bidder making the highest (or lowest) bid, in which case only that person can form the contract, and they accept by making the
highest or lowest bid (Harvela Investments Ltd v Royal Trust Co of Canada (1985)). Competitive tendering also means that parties entering bids may have them considered (Blackpool)l & Fylde Aero
Club v Blackpool Borough Council (1990)).

Communication of offers

A valid offer must be communicated to the offeree. It would be unfair for a person to be bound by an offer of which (s)he had no knowledge (Taylor v Laird (1856)). so the offeree must have clear knowledge Of the existence Of an
Offer for it to be enforceable (Inland Revenue Commissioners v Fry (2001)).
An offer can be made to one individual, but also to the whole world, when the offer can be accepted by any party who had genuine notice of it (C.arlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co (1893)).
The terms of the offer must be certain. The parties must know in advance what they are contracting over, so any vague words may invalidate the agreement (Guthing v Lynn ( 1831)).

Revocation of offers

Revocation refers to the withdrawal of an offer. An offeror may withdraw the offer any rime before the offeree has accepted it (Routledge v Grant (1828)). It would unfair to expect the offeror to wait indefinitely for an offeree's response.
An offer made in response to an invitation to treat may also be withdrawn if not yet accepted (Payne v Cave (1789)). To be valid, a revocation of an offer must be communicated to the offeree. It would also be unfair for a legitimate offeree to lose the chance to enter a contract because the offer was withdrawn without warning (Byrne v Van Tienhoven (1880)).
The revocation need not be made personally. It can be made by a reliable third party (i.e. one known to both parties so that the offeree may rely on the revocation (Dickinson v Dodds (1876)).
A unilateral offer cannot be withdrawn if the offeree is in the act of performing, since acceptance and performance are one and the samething (Errington v Errington and Woods ( 1952)).

Termination of offers

An offer may come to an end because it has been accepted, in which case a contract is formed.
Other than this an Offer can end in one Of three ways:
a) By passage of time: because the time set for acceptance has passed; because a 'reasonable time' has passed — it would be unfair to expect an offeror to indefinitely keep open an offer for sale of
perishable goods. What is a 'reasonable time' is thus a question of fact in each case (Ramsgate Victoria Hotel v Montefiore (1866)).

b) By failing to comply with a condition precedent (Financings v Stimson (1962)) (e.g. an offer of employment made subject to production of a satisfactory reference or medical report).

c) Because of the death of either party.
- If the offeror dies and the offeree knows of this, it is unlikely that (s)he would be able to accept and bind the estate of the offeror to a contract.
- If the offeree, however, accepts an offer in ignorance of the death of the offeror then a contract may be formed (Bradbury v Morgan (1862)).
- If the offeree dies then it is unlikely that the executors or administrators of the estate can accept on his/her behalf (Reynolds v Atherton (1921)).

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Bitcoins in Malaysia

Now is one of the best times to own Bitcoin—but only if you bought it last year.

That doesn’t mean you’re out of the cryptocurrency gold rush, fortunately. Everything between Dogecoin, Ethereum and NEM are all still an opportunity for users to hedge their bets, though options for Malaysians to buy can be limited.

Just keep in mind how volatile these cryptocurrencies usually are—more volatile than Bitcoin even, which relies on its founding ideology to drive more stability.

With enough smarts and research, you might also still benefit from buying Bitcoin even today.

So if you’re an extreme beginner who is curious about how to own your very own chunk of cryptocurrency, here’s where to get them.

Before you make any serious purchases, read up about cryptocurrency wallets and how to secure them. Try to stick to officially endorsed wallets, and be careful of malware pretending to be wallets.

What you need:

1. A wallet software.
2. An ID (your I.C., passport, etc.)
2. Ringgit to trade with.
As a fair warning, we’ve received reports of Bitcoin owners in Malaysia whose wallets were suspended from transferring into Malaysian bank accounts, lasting approximately a month. Do bear this in mind before you commit your money to any wallets. We think a good rule of thumb is to only buy cryptocurrency with money you can afford to lose
The list below is curated based on platforms that have a substantial presence in Malaysia, either through good reputation, or those who are run by Malaysians, as far as we can find.


1. Luno

Image Credit: Luno
What you can get: Bitcoin and Ethereum
Luno allows you to trade Ringgit with cryptocurrency directly. This Singaporean app is probably the most trusted Bitcoin platforms in Malaysia, and for good reason. Deposits are free, and withdrawal fees range from 0% to 1%. You’ll get your cryptocurrency pretty fast after making a purchase too.
We bet being available as an app helps too.
However, you can only deposit cash using bank transfers in Malaysia. And it’s not advised to store Bitcoins in their wallet service.

2. Coinhako

Image Credit: Coinhako
What you can get: Bitcoin, Ethereum
Coinhako is a beginner-friendly exchange that also offers a secure wallet on top of its services. Its customer service is one of its top features, backed by some of Silicon Valley’s prominent investors. It charges 0.9% for both buying and selling, especially using the Ringgit or Singapore Dollar.
Coinhako’s rates and fees are said to be quite competitive too.
Payments can be done cheapest using bank transfers from Malaysian accounts, though there is the option for Xfers wallet transfers or Telegraphic transfers.

3. XBit Asia

Image Credit: XBit Asia
What you can get: Bitcoin
It seems like XBit Asia was built specifically for Malaysia, as it only trades Malaysian Ringgit with Bitcoin. It is said to be one of Malaysia’s leading Bitcoin tradings sites. XBit Asia charges a 0.8% trading fee.
This exchange also provides what is said to be a pretty secure wallet, and deposits are free too. They want to place a priority on security, as well as fast processing services. Online support is also available 24/7.
As a fun little extra, XBit Asia offers a merchant service which allows online shops to accept Bitcoin.


1. LocalBitcoins

Image Credit: BuyBitcoinWorldwide
What you can get: Bitcoin
LocalBitcoins is one of the biggest peer-to-peer Bitcoin trading sites online, which means that you’ll need to be careful of a user’s reputation (marked with a Feedback Score) before trading with them. Transactions that go through the platform are run through its Escrow system to protect both parties. It charges a 1% fee on all transactions.
If you’re not keen on attaching your legal name to your Bitcoin, then LocalBitcoins along with other peer-to-peer services is your best bet. It’s one of the only exchanges that doesn’t require you to confirm your identity.
LocalBitcoins accepts all payment methods, with cash being the most popular.

2. Coinexy

Image Credit: Coinexy
What you can get: Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin and Dogecoin
As a Malaysian cryptocurrency exchange, Coinexy is now currently only available to Malaysian IPs. This peer-to-peer exchange platform is special because it also accepts Litecoin and Dogecoin. So again, check a user’s trustability on the platform before agreeing to any transactions with them.
As one of the newer players in Malaysia, you should expect certain glitches or issues with the site.
Read about how to trade on Coinexy here.

3. Remitano

Image Credit: Remitano
What you can get: Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Remitano is another popular player in Malaysia. Similar to LocalBitcoins, Remitano works on a decentralised peer-to-peer system using Escrow for user protection. So again, checking a user’s reputation is key here. It also charges a 1% fee for all transactions. Logging your identity into the platform is recommended, but not required.
Customer service is also said to be a big plus.
Unlike LocalBitcoins however, Remitano has a system to point out its more trustworthy users by marking them as frequent buyers.
Generally, users exchange cryptocurrency using cash or bank transfers.

Bitcoin ATMs

1. Pinexc

Image Credit: Coinatmradar
What you can get: Bitcoin
Here’s a super easy way to buy Bitcoins: just go to an ATM. Instead of tapping some buttons and getting cash, you instead put cash into the machine and get Bitcoins in your wallet. Pinkexc (M) Sdn Bhd in Ipoh supports both buying and selling Bitcoin, with a 6% charge for both services.
One plus point for using an ATM is that you get your coins pretty much instantly, while also protecting your privacy as you don’t need an ID to use an ATM.
The only one currently available in Malaysia is operating in Ipoh.

How Do I Buy Cryptocurrencies Other Than Bitcoin Or Ethereum? 

Firstly, you’ll have to own either Bitcoin or Ethereum before you can embark on these following sites. Secondly, you’ll need a separate wallet for your other cryptocurrencies, and be careful not to mix up sending your coins or you might end up losing them.
While Bitcoin is generally traded against USD, do note that other types of currencies, like Ripple or Dogecoin, are usually traded against Bitcoin. This makes these currencies highly volatile, even more so than Bitcoin. You can find out why here.
Here are some sites that you can get these alternate cryptocurrencies from.

1. Poloniex

Image Credit: Poloniex
Here is a list of currencies that you can trade on Poloniex, and their values.
Poloniex can seem a little dodgy because most of the brains behind the platform are kept secret. Nevertheless, it’s seen as one of the world’s largest Ethereum exchanges in 2017. It also receives the largest amount of traffic in the crypto-exchange industry.
It is one of the go-to places for serious crypto traders seeking new coins to trade in, partly because of its highly detailed charts and good data analysis tools.

2. Bittrex

Image Credit: Bittrex
Here is a list of currencies that you can trade on Bittrex, and their values.
A USA-based platform, Bittrex’s biggest strength is in the sheer number of cryptocurrencies you can get on its platform. Only launched in 2014, this USA-based company touts a secure platform with a multi-stage wallet strategy.
It tries to keep one step ahead, seeing itself as the next generation cryptocurrency trading. One of its strong points is also a consistent trading fee at 0.25%, which does set it apart.
Shapeshift and Changelly are coin conversion tools. They can be used for similar purposes as well. However, they do have less selections, and generally charge higher fees.
  • To start off, get yourself some legitimate cryptocurrency wallets, your ID, and money to trade with.
  • LunoCoinhakoXBit Asia can be used for traditional cryptocurrency exchanges
  • LocalBitcoinsCoinexy and Remitano do peer-to-peer purchases, a service that simply facilitates two users to buy and sell cryptocurrency.
  • There is a Bitcoin ATM in Ipoh called Pinkexc
  • To buy most cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin or Ethereum, you’ll need to own some Bitcoin first, and remember that it’s highly volatile.
  • For currencies other than Bitcoin, you can go to Poloniex or Bittrex. You can also try Shapeshift and Changelly if you don’t mind the higher fees

WTF is a Blockchain?

  • The blockchain is like a huge, global, decentralized spreadsheet.
  • It keeps track of who sent how many coins to whom, and what the balance of every account is.
  • It is stored and maintained by thousands of people (miners) across the globe who have special computers.
  • The blocks in the blockchain are made up of all the individual transactions sent from MyEtherWallet, MetaMask, Exodus, Mist, Geth, Parity, and everywhere else.
  • When you see your balance on , or view your transactions on, you are seeing data on the blockchain.
Suggestion wallet portal.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

IP V6 Checking Tools

Sunday, December 1, 2013

How To Draw 3D PowerPoint Circle

Learn to make elegant 3D circle in PowerPoint for your business presentations. Watch and learn from the video tutorial.
The 3D Circle base or disc you are about to learn to make is:
3D PowerPoint Circle Disc Image

Uses of 3D PowerPoint circle:

This circular 3D base has a number of uses in a business presentation. It can serve as a platform to hold an icon or text. There are many ways to use the base once you learnt to create it:
PowerPoint Circle Uses Options Image

In this article you’ll learn to make this circular base in PowerPoint 2007.

Watch the following video to understand the method to create 3D circular bases in a step by step way:
Here are some Creative PowerPoint Diagrams we created using the method you just learnt.
PowerPoint Template 1: Five phases of a project
When representing different phases of a project, you can do it as the usual timeline or as a visual diagram like this:
PowerPoint Template for Project Phases
SourcePowerPoint Roadmaps from 750+ Charts & Diagrams CEO pack
This diagram is professionally animated in PowerPoint, so that each phase appears in line with the explanation provided by the presenter. 
PowerPoint Template 2: Timeline template to set context
Set the context for your presentation by giving a quick overview of the past, present and future of your industry. As you can see, while the template looks polished and professional, it does not take away the attention from the presenter or the information provided. This is one common issue with using a strong photo as a visual.
PowerPoint Circle Template Timeline Image
See more PowerPoint Timelines from CEO Pack
PowerPoint Template 3: Organizational hierarchy
The 3D circles can be stacked one over the other to depict the hierarchical levels in an organization. Any kind of hierarchy can be represented with this template.
Organizational Hierarchy PowerPoint Circle Image
SourcePowerPoint Pyramid Diagram from CEO Pack
PowerPoint Template 4: Four Point Agenda
This elegant diagram can help you to communicate the four point agenda of your business presentation.
PowerPoint Agenda Diagram Template
PowerPoint Template 5: Creative column graph
These 3D discs when stacked one over the other can even serve as column graphs for your numbers based presentations.
Creative Column Graph with PowerPoint Circle
More charts available in 750+ Charts & Diagrams CEO Pack


You can create your own variations and use the 3D circle in many innovative ways.
If you are too busy to experiment, you can always take a look at the PowerPoint Charts & Diagrams CEO Pack by clicking here.
This template pack has 750+ interesting diagrams like these. You can mix and match elements and create literally thousands of professional diagrams in a matter of minutes. 

Read more:
All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2010-2011 Presentation-Process
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives


Draw Creative 3D Circle In Powerpoint

Find a simple 5 step process to draw creative 3D circle diagram in PowerPoint. Discover the amazing power of 3D tools in PowerPoint 2007.

Here is the circle diagram we will learn today:

Circle in PowerPoint
There are tons of uses for this diagram. You can use it to represent Pros and Cons of an issue, two sides of an argument or two contrasting views.
Let us learn to draw this stunning circle in simple steps.
Step 1: Drawing the circle
Go to Auto shapes option and select ‘Block Arc’ tool.
 Block Arc PowerPoint Tutorial
Hold the shift button while drawing the shape. You will get a perfect semi circular block like this:
Simple Block Arc Diagram
 Fill the color of your choice and remove the outline. Now copy the shape and place it right on top of the original shape. Go to Arrange -> Rotate - > Flip Vertical. You should get a circle with two equal halves like this:
Block Arc Circle 
Choose a color to fill the bottom half of the circle. Group the two halves.
Step 2: Adding 3D perspective to the circle
Right click on the group and go to Format shape - > 3D rotation - > Presets -> choose ‘Perspective relaxed’ as shown below:
3d rotation option in PowerPoint
This should give a 3D perspective to our circle as seen here:
relaxed perspective circle 
Step 3: Adding a bevel to enhance the look
Now, it is time to take the look and feel of our circle to a whole new level. We will give it a bevel top by right clicking on the circle -> Format shape -> 3D format -> Top -> Cross bevel.
Adding bevel in PowerPoint
That should make the circle in PowerPoint look like this:
3d Circle with Bevel in PowerPoint
Step 4: Adding depth to the shape
The next step is to add depth to our circle. Right click on the circle -> Format -> 3D format -> Depth -> Enter a value of 25 as shown here:
Setting Depth for Shape 
This is how the circle looks when you follow the step:
 Simple Creative circle in PowerPoint
The circle diagram looks remarkable already. But, our final step will make it shine and glow even further.
PowerPoint Charts & Diagrams Pack
Instantly download 750+ easily editable PowerPoint Diagrams for CEOs.Represent ANY business idea quickly and visually.
Step 5: Make the PowerPoint circle shine and glow
First add sheen on the surface by adjusting the surface property. Right click on the circle -> Format shape -> 3D format -> Surface -> Material -> Special effect -> Dark edge as shown below:
Material Setting for PowerPoint Shape
Add a PowerPoint shadow to give it a base. Choose the shadow option in the same menu and choose Presets -> Outer -> Offset Diagonal Bottom Right. Enter the following values for size and blur. This gives the 3D circle in PowerPoint a more realistic feel:
 Formatting PowerPoint Shape Shadow
There we go. Our final product is ready. If you had followed all the steps, your awesome circle should look like this:
 Circle in PowerPoint Tutorial

Variations to circle diagram in PowerPoint:

There are some useful variations to this diagram. Take a look at some of the options below to serve as an inspiration:
PowerPoint Circle from Charts Diagrams CEO Pack
PowerPoint Wheel Diagrams from CEO Pack

Related Articles

How to choose the right PowerPoint Chart

Learn to create professional PowerPoint Effects

Read more:
All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2010-2011 Presentation-Process
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives